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Full text of "The blond race and the Aryan culture, by Thorstein B. Veblen"

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\ Lecturer in Economics 



December, 1913 







Lecturer in Economics 



December, 1913 


Lecturer in Economics 

It has been argued in an earlier paper* that the blond 
type or types of man (presumably the dolichocephalic blond) 
arose by jrmtation from the Mediterranean stock during the 
last period of severe glaciation in Europe. This would place 
the emergence of this racial type roughly coincident with the 
beginning of the European neolithic; the evidence going pre- 
sumptively to show that the neolithic technology came into 
Europe with the Mediterranean race, at or about the same 
time with that race, and that the mutation which gave rise 
to the dolicho-blond took place after the Mediterranean race 
was securely settled in Europe. Since this blond mutant 
made good its survival under the circumstances into which 
it so was thrown it should presumably be suited by native 
endowment to the industrial and climatic conditions that pre- 
vailed through the early phases of the neolithic age in Europe ; 
that is to say, it would be a type of man selectively adapted 
to the technological situation characteristic of the early neo- 
lithic but lacking as yet the domestic animals (and crop- 
plants?) that presently give much of its character to that 

Beginning, then, with the period of the last severe glacia- 
tion, and starting with this technological equipment, those 
portions of the European population that contained an appre- 
ciable and increasing admixture of the blond may be con- 

*"The Mutation Theory and the Blond Race," in The Journal 
of Race Development, April, 1913. 



ceived to have ranged across the breadth of Europe, particu- 
larly in the lowlands, in the belt of damp and cool country 
that fringed the ice, and to have followed the receding ice- 
sheet northward when the general climate of Europe began 
to take on its present character with the returning warmth 
and dryness. By force of the strict climatic limitation to 
which this type is subject, the blond element, and more par- 
ticularly the dolicho-blond, will presently have disappeared 
by selective elimination from the population of those regions 
from which the ice-sheet and its fringe of cool and humid 
climate had receded. The cool and humid belt suited to the 
propagation of the blond mutant (and its blond hybrids) 
would shift northward and shorten down to the seaboard 
as the glacial conditions in which it had originated presently 
ceased. So that presently, when Europe finally lost its ice- 
sheet, the blond race and its characteristic hybrids would be 
found confined nearly within the bounds which have marked 
its permanent extension in historic times. These limits have, 
no doubt, fluctuated somewhat in response to secular varia- 
tions of climate; but on the whole they appear to have been 
singularly permanent and singularly rigid. 

Apparently after the dolicho-blond had come to occupy 
the restricted habitat which the stock has since continued to 
hold on the northern seaboard of Europe, toward the close 
of what is known in Danish chronology as the "older stone 
age," the early stock of domestic animals appear to have 
been introduced into Europe from Asia; the like statement 
will hold more doubtfully for the older staple crop plants, 
with the reservation that their introduction appears to ante- 
date that of the domestic animals. At least some such date 
seems indicated by their first appearance in Denmark late in 
the period of the "kitchen middens." Virtually all of these 
essential elements of their material civilization appear to have 
come to the blond-hybrid communities settled on the narrow 
Scandinavian waters, as to the rest of Europe, from Turke- 


stan. This holds true at least for the domestic animals as 
a whole, the possible exceptions among the early introduc- 
tions being not of great importance. Some of the early crop 
plants may well have come from what is now Mesopotamian 
or Persian territory, and may conceivably have reached 
western Europe appreciably earlier, without affecting the 
present argument. If the European horse had been domes- 
ticated in palaeolithic times, as appears at least extremely 
probable, that technological gain appears to have been lost 
before the close of the palaeolithic age; perhaps along with 
the extinction of the European horse. 

These new elements of technological equipment, the crop 
plants and animals, greatly affected the character of the 
neolithic culture in Europe; visibly so as regards the region 
presumably occupied by the dolicho-blond, or the blond- 
hybrid peoples. On the material side of the community's life 
they would bring change direct and immediate, altering the 
whole scheme of ways and means and shifting the pursuit of 
a livelihood to new lines; and on the immaterial side their 
effect would be scarcely less important, in that the new ways 
and means and the new manner of life requisite and induced 
by their use would bring on certain new institutional features 
suitable to a system of mixed farming. Whatever may have 
been the manner of their introduction, whether they were 
transmitted peaceably by insensible diffusion from group to 
group or were carried in with a high hand by a new intrusive 
population that over-ran the country and imposed its own 
cultural scheme upon the Europeans along with the new ways 
and means of life, in any case these new cultural elements 
will have spread over the face of Europe somewhat gradually 
and will have reached the blond-hybrid communities in their 
remote corner of the continent only after an appreciable 
lapse of time. Yet, it is to be noted, it is after all relatively 
early in neolithic times that certain of the domestic plants 


and animals first come into evidence in the Scandinavian 

The crop plants appear to have come in earlier than the 
domestic animals, being perhaps brought in by the peoples 
of the Mediterranean race at their first occupation of Europe 
in late quaternary time. With tillage necessarily goes a seden- 
tary manner of life. So that at their first introduction the 
domestic animals were intruded into a system of husbandry 
carried on by a population living in settled communities, and 
drawing their livelihood in great part from the tilled ground 
but also in part from the sea and from the game-bearing 
forests that covered much of the country at that time. It 
was into such a situation that the domestic animals were in- 
truded on their first coming into Europe, particularly into 
the seaboard region of north Europe. 

On the open ranges of western and central Asia, from 
which these domestic animals came, and even in the hill 
country of that general region, the peoples that draw their 
livelihood from cattle and sheep are commonly of a nomadic 
habit of life, in the sense that the requirements of forage 
for their herds and flocks hold them to an unremitting round 
of seasonal migration. It results that, except in the broken 
hill country, these peoples habitually make use of movable 
habitations, live in camps rather than in settled, sedentary 
communities. Certain peculiar institutional arrangements also 
result from this nomadic manner of life associated with the 
care of flocks and herds on a large scale. But on their intro- 
duction into Europe the domestic animals appear on the 
whole not to have supplanted tillage and given rise to such a 
nomadic-pastoral scheme of life, exclusively given to cattle 
raising, but rather to have fallen into a system of mixed farm- 
ing which combined tillage with a sedentary or quasi-sedentary 
grazing industry. Such particularly appears to have been the 
case in the seaboard region of the north, where there is no 
evidence of tillage having been displaced by a nomadic grazing 


industry. Indeed, the small-scale and broken topography of 
this European region has never admitted a large-scale cattle 
industry, such as has prevailed on the wide Asiatic ranges. 
An exception, at least partial and circumscribed, may perhaps 
be found in the large plains of the extreme Southeast and in 
the Danube valley; and it appears also that grazing, after 
the sedentary fashion, took precedence of tillage in prehistoric 
Ireland as well as here and there in the hilly countries of 
southern and central Europe. 

Such an introduction of tillage and grazing would mean 
a revolutionary change in the technology of the European 
stone age, and a technological revolution of this kind will 
unavoidably bring on something of a radical change in the 
scheme of institutions under which the community lives ; 
primarily in the institutions governing the details of its eco- 
nomic life, but secondarily also in its domestic and civil re- 
lations. When such a change comes about through the in- 
trusion of new material factors the presumption should be 
that the range of institutions already associated with these 
material factors in their earlier home will greatly influence 
the resulting new growth of institutions in the new situation, 
even if circumstances may not permit these alien institutions 
to be brought in and put into effect with the scope and force 
which they may have had in the culture out of which they 
have come. Some assimilation is to be looked for even if 
circumstances will not permit the adoption of the full scheme 
of institutions, and the institutions originally associated with 
the intrusive technology will be found surviving with least 
loss or qualification in those portions of the invaded territory 
where the invaders have settled in force, and particularly 
where conditions have permitted them to retain something of 
their earlier manner of life. 

The bringers of these new elements of culture, material 
and immaterial, had acquired what they brought with them 
on the open sheep and cattle ranges of the central-Asiatic 


plains and uplands, as is held to be the unequivocal testi- 
mony of the Aryan speech, and as is borne out by the latest 
explorations in that region. These later explorations indicate 
west-central Turkestan as the probable center of the domes- 
tication and diffusion of the animals, if not also of the crop 
plants, that have stocked Europe. Of what race these bearers 
of the new technology and culture may have been, and just 
what they brought into Europe, is all a matter of inference 
and surmise. It was once usual to infer, as a ready matter 
of course, that these immigrant pastoral nomads from the 
Asiatic uplands were "Aryans," "Indo-Europeans," Indo- 
Germans," of a predominantly blond physique. But what has 
been said above as well as in the earlier paper referred to 
comes near excluding the possibility of these invaders being 
blonds, or more specifically the dolicho-blond. It is, of course, 
conceivable, with Keane (if his speculations on this head are 
to be taken seriously), that a fragment of the alleged blond 
race from Mauretania may have wandered off into Turkestan 
by way of the Levant, and so may there have acquired the 
habits of a pastoral life, together with the Aryan speech and 
institutions, and may then presently have carried these cul- 
tural factors into Europe and imposed them on the European 
population, blond and brunet. But such speculations, which 
once were allowable though idle, have latterly been put out 
of all question, at least for the present, by the recent Pum- 
pelly explorations in Turkestan. It is, for climatic reasons, 
extremely improbable that any blond stock should have in- 
habited any region of the central-Asiatic plains or uplands 
long enough to acquire the pastoral habits of life and the 
concomitant Aryan speech and institutions, and it is fairly 
certain that the dolicho-blond could not have survived for 
that length of time under the requisite conditions of climate 
and topography. 

It is similarly quite out of the question that the dolicho- 
blond, arising as a mutant type late in quaternary time, 


should have created the Aryan speech and culture in Europe, 
since neither the archaeological evidence nor the known facts 
of climate and topography permit the hypothesis that a pas- 
toral-nomadic culture of home growth has ever prevailed in 
Europe on a scale approaching that required for such a re- 
sult. And there is but little more possibility that the bringers 
of the new (Aryan) culture should have been of the Mediter- 
ranean race; although the explorations referred to make it 
nearly certain that the communities which domesticated the 
pastoral animals (and perhaps the crop-plants) in Turkestan 
were of that race. The Mediterranean race originally is 
Hamitic, not Aryan, it is held by men competent to speak 
on that matter, and the known (presumably) Mediterranean 
phehistoric settlements in Turkestan, at Anau, are moreover 
obviously the settlements of a notably sedentary people fol- 
lowing a characteristically peaceable mode of life. The 
population of these settlements might of course conceivably 
have presently acquired the nomadic and predatory habits 
reflected by the Aryan speech and institutions, but there is 
no evidence of such an episode at Anau, where the finds show 
an uninterrupted peaceable and sedentary occupation of the 
sites throughout the period that could come in question. The 
population of the settlements at Anau could scarcely have 
made such a cultural innovation, involving the adoption of 
an alien language, except under the pressure of conquest by 
an invading people; which would involve the subjection of 
the peaceable communities of Anau and the incorporation of 
their inhabitants as slaves or as a servile class in the preda- 
tory organization of their masters. The Mediterranean peo- 
ple of Anau could accordingly have had a hand in carrying 
this pastoral-predatory (Aryan) culture into the West only 
as a subsidiary racial element in a migratory community made 
up primarily of another racial stock. 

This leaves the probability that an Asiatic stock, without 
previous settled sedentary habits of life, acquired the domes- 


ticated animals from the sedentary and peaceable communi- 
ties of Anau, or from some similar village (pueblo) or vil- 
lages of western Turkestan, and then through a (moderately) 
long experience of nomadic pastoral life acquired also the 
predatory habits and institutions that commonly go with a 
pastoral life on a large scale. These cultural traits they ac- 
quired in such a degree of elaboration and maturity as is 
implied by the primitive Aryan (or better, proto- Aryan) 
speech, including a more or less well developed patriarchal 
system; so that they would presently become a militant and 
migratory community somewhat after the later-known Tatar 
fashion, and so made their way westward as a self-sufficient 
migratory host and carried the new material culture into 
Europe together with the alien Aryan speech. It is at the 
same time almost unavoidable that in such an event this mi- 
gratory host would have carried with them into the West an 
appreciable servile contingent made up primarily of enslaved 
captives from the peaceable agricultural settlements of the 
Mediterranean race, which had originally supplied them with 
their stock of domestic animals. 

Along with these new technological elements and the 
changes of law and custom which their adoption would bring 
on, there will also have come in the new language that was 
designed to describe these new ways and means of life and 
was adapted to express the habits of thought which the new 
ways and means bred in the peoples that adopted them. The 
immigrant pastoral (proto- Aryan) language and the pastoral 
(patriarchal and predatory) law and custom will in some de- 
gree have been bound up with the technological ways and 
means out of which they arose, and they would be expected 
to have reached and affected the various communities of 
Europe in somewhat the same time and the same measure in 
which these material facts of the pastoral life made their way 
among these peoples. In the course of the diffusion of these 
cultural elements, material and immaterial, among the Euro- 


pean communities the language and in a less degree the do- 
mestic and civil usages and ideals bred by the habits of the 
pastoral life might of course come to be dissociated from 
their material or technological basis and might so be adopted 
by remoter peoples who never acquired any large measure 
of the material culture of those pastoral nomads whose man- 
ner of life had once given rise to these immaterial features 
of Aryan civilisation. 

Certain considerations going to support this far-flung 
line of conjectural history may be set out more in detail : 
(a) The Aryan civilisation is of the pastoral type, with such 
institutions, usages and preconceptions as a large-scale pas- 
toral organisation commonly involves. Such is said by com- 
petent philologists to be the evidence of the primitive Aryan 
speech. It is substantially a servile organisation under patri- 
archal rule, or, if the expression be preferred, a militant or 
predatory organisation ; these alternative phrases describe the 
same facts from different points of view. It is characterised 
by a well-defined system of property rights, a somewhat pro- 
nounced subjection of women and children, and a masterful 
religious system tending strongly to monotheism. A pastoral 
culture on the broad plains and uplands of a continental 
region, such as west-central Asia, will necessarily fall into 
some such shape, because of the necessity of an alert and 
mobile readiness for offense and defense and the consequent 
need of soldierly discipline. Insubordination, which is the 
substance of free institutions, is incompatible with a prosper- 
ous pastoral-nomadic mode of life. When worked out with 
any degree of maturity and consistency the pastoral-nomadic 
culture that has to do with sheep and cattle appears always 
to have been a predatory, and therefore a servile culture, par- 
ticularly when drawn on the large scale imposed by the 
topography of the central-Asiatic plains, and reenforced with 
the use of the horse. (The reindeer nomads of the arctic 


seaboard may appear to be an exception, at least in a degree, 
but they are a special case, admitting a particular explana- 
tion, and their case does not affect the argument for the 
Aryan civilisation.) The characteristic and pervasive human 
relation in such a culture is that of master and servant, and 
the social (domestic and civil) structure is an organization 
of graded servitude, in which no one is his own master but 
the overlord, even nominally. The family is patriarchal, 
women and children are in strict tutelage, and discretion 
vests in the male head alone. If the group grows large its 
civil institutions are of a like coercive character, it commonly 
shows a rigorous tribal organisation, and in the end, with 
the help of warlike experience, it almost unavoidably becomes 
a despotic monarchy. 

It has not been unusual to speak of the popular institu- 
tions of Germanic paganism typified, e. g., by the Scandi- 
navian usages of local self-government -in pagan times as 
being typically Aryan institutions, but that is a misnomer 
due to uncritical generalisation guided by a chauvinistic bias. 
These ancient north-European usages are plainly alien to the 
culture reflected by the primitive Aryan Speech, if we are to 
accept the consensus of the philological ethnologists to the 
effect that the people who used the primitive Aryan speech 
must have been a community of pastoral nomads inhabiting 
the plains and uplands of a continental region. That many 
of these philological ethnologists also hold to the view that 
these Aryans were north-European pagan blonds may raise 
a personal question of consistency but does not otherwise 
touch the present argument. 

(b) A racial stock that has ever been of first-rate conse- 
quence in the ethnology of Europe (the Alpine, brachycephalic 
brunet, the homo alpinus of the Linnean scheme) comes into 
Europe at this general period, from Asia; and this race is 
held to have presently made itself at home, if not dominant, 


throughout middle Europe, where it has in historic times 
unquestionably been the dominant racial element. 

(c) The pastoral-nomadic institutions spoken of above 
appear to have best made their way in those regions of 
Europe where this brachycephalic brunet stock has been pres- 
ent in some force if not as a dominant racial factor. The 
evidence is perhaps not conclusive, but there is at least a 
strong line of suggestion afforded by the distribution of the 
patriarchal type of institutions within Europe, including the 
tribal and gentile organisation. There is a rough concomi- 
tance between the distribution of these cultural elements 
presumably derived from an Aryan source on the one hand, 
and the distribution past or present of the brachycephalic 
brunet type on the other hand. The regions where this line 
of institutions are known to have prevailed in early times are, 
in the main, regions in which the Alpine racial type is also 
known to have been present in force, as, e. g., in the classic 
Greek and Roman republics. 

At the same time a gentile organisation seems also to 
have been associated from the outset with the Mediterranean 
racial stock and may well have been comprised in the institu- 
tional furniture of that race as it stood before the advent of 
the Alpine stock; but the drift of later inquiry and specula- 
tion on this head appears to support the view that this Med- 
iterranean gentile system was of a matrilinear character, such 
as is found in many extant agricultural communities of the 
lower barbarian culture, rather than of a patriarchal kind, 
such as characterises the pastoral nomads. The northern 
blond communities alone appear, on the available evidence, 
to have had no gentile or tribal institutions, whether matrili- 
near or patriarchal. The classic Greek and Roman commun- 
ities appear originally to have been of the Mediterranean race 
and to have always retained a broad substratum of the Med- 
iterranean stock as the largest racial element in their popula- 
tion, but the Alpine stock was also largely represented in 


these communities at the period when their tribal and gentile 
institutions are known to have counted for much, as, indeed, 
it has continued ever since. 

Apart from these communities of the Mediterranean sea- 
board, the peoples of the Keltic culture appear to have had 
the tribal and gentile system, together with the patriarchal 
family, in more fully developed form than it is to be found 
in Europe at large. The peoples of Keltic speech are cur- 
rently believed by ethnologists to have originally been of a 
blond type, although opinions are not altogether at one on 
that head, the tall, perhaps red-haired, brachycephalic blond, 
the "Saxon" of Beddoe, the "Oriental" of Deniker. But this 
blond type is perhaps best accounted for as a hybrid of the 
dolicho-blond crossed on the Alpine brachycephalic brunet. 
Some such view of its derivation is fortified by what is known 
of the prehistory and the peculiar features of the early Keltic 
culture. This culture differs in some respects radically from 
that of the dolicho-blond communities, and it bears more of a 
resemblance to the culture of such a brunet group of peoples 
as the early historic communities of upper and middle Italy. 
If the view is to be accepted which is coming into currency 
latterly, that the Keltic is to be affiliated with the culture of 
Hallstatt and La Tene, such affiliation will greatly increase 
the probability that it is to be counted as a culture strongly 
influenced if not dominated by the Alpine stock. The Hall- 
statt culture, lying in the valley of the Danube and its upper 
affluents, lay in the presumed westward path of immigration 
of the Alpine stock ; its human remains are of a mixed charac- 
ter, showing a strong admixture of the brachycephalic brunet 
type; and it gives evidence of cultural gains due to outside 
influence in advance of the adjacent regions of Europe. This 
Keltic culture, then, as known to history and prehistory, runs 
broadly across middle Europe along the belt where blond 
and brunet elements meet and blend; and it has some of the 
features of that predatory-pastoral culture reflected by the 


primitive Aryan speech, in freer development, or in better 
preservation, than the adjacent cultural regions to the north; 
at the same time the peoples of this Keltic culture show more 
of affiliation to or admixture with the brachycephalic brunet 
than the other blond-hybrid peoples do. 

On the other hand the communities of dolicho-blond 
hybrids on the shores of the narrow Scandinavian waters, 
remote from the centers of the Alpine culture, show little of 
the institutions peculiar to a pastoral people. These dolicho- 
blond hybrids of the North come into history at a later date, 
but with a better preserved and more adequately recorded 
paganism than the other barbarians of Europe. The late- 
pagan Germanic- Scandinavian culture affords the best avail- 
able instance of archaic dolicho-blond institutions, if not the 
sole instance; and it is to be noted that among these peoples 
the patriarchal system is weak and vague, women are not 
in perpetual tutelage, the discretion of the male head of the 
household is not despotic nor even unquestioned, children 
are not held under paternal discretion beyond adult age, the 
patrimony is held to no clan liabilities and is readily divisible 
on inheritance, and so forth. Neither is there any serious 
evidence of a tribal or gentile system among these peoples, 
early or late, nor are any of them, excepting the late and 
special instance of the Icelandic colony, known ever to have 
been wholly or mainly of pastoral habits; indeed, they are 
known to have been without the pastoral animals until some 
time in the neolithic period. The only dissenting evidence on 
these heads is that of the Latin writers, substantially Caesar 
and Tacitus, whose testimony is doubtless to be thrown out 
as incompetent in view of the fact that it is supported neither 
by circumstantial evidence nor by later and more authentic 
records. In speaking of "tribes" among the Germanic hordes 
these Latin writers are plainly construing Germanic facts in 
Roman terms, very much as the Spanish writers of a later 
day construed Mexican and Peruvian facts in medieval- 


feudalistic terms, to the lasting confusion of the historians; 
whereas in enlarging on the pastoral habits of the Germanic 
communities they go entirely on data taken from bodies of 
people on the move and organised for raiding, or recently and 
provisionally settled upon a subject population presumably of 
Keltic derivation or of other alien origin and inhabiting the 
broad lands of middle Europe remote from the permanent 
habitat of the dolicho-blond. Great freedom of assumption 
has been used and much ingenuity has been spent in imputing 
a tribal system to the early Germanic peoples, but apart from 
the sophisticated testimony of these classical writers there is 
no evidence for it. The nearest approach to a tribal or a 
gentile organisation within this culture is the "kin," which 
counts for something in early Germanic law and custom; but 
the kin is far from being a gens or clan, and it will be found 
to have more of the force of a clan organization the farther 
it has strayed from the Scandinavian center of diffusion of 
the dolicho-blond and the more protracted the war-like dis- 
cipline to which the wandering host has been exposed. All 
these properly Aryan institutions are weakest or most notably 
wanting where the blond is most indubitably in evidence. 

Taking early Europe as a whole, it will appear that 
among the European peoples at large institutions of the char- 
acter reflected in the primitive Aryan speech and implied in 
the pastoral-nomadic life evidenced by the same speech are 
relatively weak, ill-defined or wanting, arguing that Europe 
was never fully Aryanized. And the peculiar geographical 
and ethnic distribution of this Aryanism of institutions ar- 
gues further that the dolicho-blond culture of the Scandi- 
navian region was less profoundly affected by the Aryan in- 
vasion than any other equally well known section of Europe. 
What is known of this primitive Aryan culture, material, do- 
mestic, civil and religious, through the Sanskrit and other 
early Asiatic sources, may convincingly be contrasted with 
what is found in early Europe. These Asiatic records, which 


are our sole dependence for a competent characterisation of 
the Aryan culture, show it to have resembled the culture of 
the early Hebrews or that of the pastoral Turanians more 
closely than it resembles the early European culture at large, 
and greatly more than it resembles the known culture of the 
early communities of dolicho-blond hybrids. 

(d) Scarcely more conclusive, but equally suggestive, is 
the evidence from the religious institutions of the Aryanized 
Europeans. As would be expected in any predatory civilisa- 
tion, such as the pastoral-nomadic cultures typically are, the 
Aryan religious system is said to have leaned strongly toward 
a despotic monarchical form, a hierarchically graded polythe- 
ism, culminating in a despotic monotheism. There is little 
of all this to be found in early pagan Europe. The nearest 
well-known approach to anything of the kind is the late 
Greek scheme of Olympian divinities with Zeus as a doubtful 
suzerain, known through latterday investigations to have 
been superimposed on an earlier cult of a very different char- 
acter. The Keltic (Druidical) system is little known, but it 
is perhaps not beyond legitimate conjecture, on the scant evi- 
dence available, that this system had rather more of the 
predatory, monarchical-despotic cast than the better known 
pagan cults of Europe. The Germanic paganism, as indicated 
by the late Scandinavian which alone is known in any ap- 
preciable degree was a lax polytheism which imputed little 
if any coercive power to the highest god, and which was not 
taken so very seriously anyway by the "worshipers," if 
Snorri's virtually exclusive account is to be accepted without 
sophistication. The evidence afforded by the religious cults 
of Europe yields little that is conclusive, beyond throwing the 
whole loose-jointed, proliferous European paganism out of 
touch with anything that can reasonably be called Aryan. 
And this in spite of the fact that all the available evidence 
is derived from the European cults as they stood after having 
been exposed to long centuries of Aryanisation. So that it 


may well be held that such systematisation of myths and ob- 
servances as these European cults give evidence of, and going 
in the direction of a despotic monotheism, is to be traced to 
the influence of the intrusive culture of the Aryan or Aryan- 
ised invaders, as is fairly plain in the instance of the Olym- 

(e) That the languages of early Europe, so far as 
known, belong almost universally to the Aryan family may 
seem an insurmountable obstacle to the view here spoken for. 
But the difficulties of the case are not appreciably lessened by 
so varying the hypothesis as to impute the Aryan speech to 
the dolicho-blond, or to any blond stock, as its original bearer. 
Indeed, the difficulties are increased by such an hypothesis, 
since the Aryan-speaking peoples of early times, as of later 
times, have in the main been communities made up of brunets 
without evidence of a blond admixture, not to speak of an 
exclusively blond people. (There is no evidence of the exist- 
ence of an all-blond people anywhere, early or late.) 

The early European situation, so far as known, offers 
no exceptional obstacles to the diffusion of an intrusive lan- 
guage. Certain mass movements of population, or rather 
mass movements of communities shifting their ground by 
secular progression, are known to have taken place, as, e. g., 
in the case of the Hallstatt-LaTene-Keltic culture moving 
westward on the whole as it gained ground and spread by 
shifting and ramfication outward from its first-known seat 
in the upper Danube valley. All the while, as this secular 
movement of growth, ramification and advance was going on, 
the Hallstatt-LaTene-Keltic peoples continued to maintain 
extensive trade relations with the Mediterranean seaboard 
and the Aegean on the one side and reaching the North-Sea 
littoral on the other side. In all probability it is by trade 
relations of this kind chiefly, no doubt, through trade car- 
ried on by itinerant merchants that the new speech made 
its way among the barbarians of Europe; and it is no far- 


fetched inference that it made its way, in the North at least, 
as a trade jargon. All this accords with what is going on at 
present under analogous circumstances. The superior merit 
by force of which such a new speech would make its way 
need be nothing more substantial than a relatively crude syn- 
tax and phonetics such as furthers the dissemination of 
English today in the form of Chinook jargon, Pidgin English, 
and Beach la Mar. Such traits, which might in some other 
light seem blemishes, facilitate the mutilation of such a lan- 
guage into a graceless but practicable trade jargon. With 
jargons as with coins the poorer (simpler) drives out the 
better (subtler and more complex). A ^second, and perhaps 
the chief, point of superiority by virtue of which a given 
language makes its way as the dominant factor in such a 
trade jargon, is the fact that it is the native language of the 
people who carry on the trade for whose behoof the jargon 
is contrived. The traders, coming in contact with many men, 
of varied speech, and carrying their varied stock of trade 
goods, will impose their own names for the articles bartered 
and so contribute that much to the jargon vocabulary, and 
a jargon is at its inception little more than a vocabulary. The 
traders at the same time are likely to belong to the people 
possessed of the more efficient technology, since it is the 
superior technology that commonly affords them their oppor- 
tunity for advantageous trade; hence the new or intrusive 
words, being the names of new or intrusive facts, will in 
so far find their way unhindered into current speech and 
further the displacement of the indigenous languages by the 

Such a jargon at the outset is little else than a vocabulary 
comprising names for the most common objects and the most 
tangible relations. On this simple but practicable framework 
new varieties of speech will develop, diversified locally accord- 
ing to the kind and quantity of materials and linguistic tradi- 


tion contributed by the various languages which it supplants 
or absorbs. 

In so putting forward the conjecture that the several 
forms of Aryan speech have arisen out of trade jargons 
that have run back to a common source in the language of an 
intrusive proto-Aryan people, and developing into widely 
diversified local and ethnic variants according as the mutilated 
proto-Aryan speech (vocabulary) fell into the hands of one 
or another of the indigenous barbarian peoples, in this sug- 
gestion there is after all nothing substantially novel beyond 
giving a collective name to facts already well accepted by the 
philologists. Working backward analytically step by step 
from the mature results given in the known Aryan languages 
they have discovered and divulged with what prolixity need 
not be alluded to here that in their beginnings these several 
idioms were little else than crude vocabularies covering the 
commonest objects and most tangible relations, and that by 
time-long use and wont the uncouth strings of vocables 
whereby the beginners of these languages sought to express 
themselves have been worked down through a stupendously 
elaborate fabric of prefixes, infixes and suffixes, etc., etc., to 
the tactically and phonetically unexceptionable inflected lan- 
guages of the Aryan family as they stood at their classical 
best. And what is true of the European languages should 
apparently hold with but slight modification for the Asiatic 
members of the family. These European idioms are com- 
monly said to be, on the whole, less true to the pattern of 
the inferentially known primitive Aryan than are its best 
Asiatic representatives; as would be expected in case the 
latter were an outgrowth of jargons lying nearer the center 
of diffusion of the proto-Aryan speech and technology. 

As regards the special case of the early north-European 
communities of dolicho-blond hybrids, the trade between the 
Baltic and Danish waters on the one hand and the Danube 
valley, Adriatic and Aegean on the other hand is known to 


have been continued and voluminous during the neolithic and 
bronze ages, as counted by the Scandinavian chronology. In 
the course of this traffic, extending over many centuries and 
complicated as it seems to have been with a large infiltration 
of the brachycephalic brunet type, much might come to pass 
in the way of linguistic substitution and growth. 






Professor of Zoology 


Non-technical Lectures on the Sciences, by Members of the Fac- 
ulty of the University of Missouri. 


1. The Implantation of the Glochidium on the Fish, by Daisy 

Young, Asshtant in Zoology. Pp. 22, plates 3. 1911. 50 cents. 

2. Notes on the Ohio Shales and their Faunas, by E. B. Branson, 
Professor of Geology, Pp. 16, plates 3. 1911. 50 cents. 

3. The Blond Race and the Aryan Culture, by Thorstein B. Veb- 
len. Lecturer in Economics. Pp. 19. 1913. 25 cents. 

Copies of the University of Missouri Bulletin, Science Series, 
may be obtained from the Librarian, University of Missouri, Co- 
lumbia, Missouri. 800 

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